The romantic period had ushered in an era of feeling: Harriet Beecher Stowe The virtues of family and love reigned supreme. Clare, prays for St. England alone, and it was quickly Slavery is depicted as evil not for translated into 20 languages, receiv- political or philosophical reasons ing the praise of such authors as but mainly because it divides fami- Georges Sand in France, Heinrich lies, destroys normal parental love, Heine in Germany, and Ivan Tur- and is inherently un-Christian. The genev in Russia. Its passionate ap- most touching scenes show an peal for an end to slavery in the agonized slave mother unable to United States inflamed the debate Photo courtesy help her screaming child and a that, within a decade, led to the U.
Culver Pictures, Inc. She finally intended as an attack on the South; escaped to the North, settling in in fact, Stowe had visited the Rochester, New York, where South, liked southerners, and por- Frederick Douglass was publishing trayed them kindly. Southern slave- the anti-slavery newspaper North owners are good masters and treat Star and near which in Seneca Tom well. There Jacobs of his slaves. The evil master became friends with Amy Post, a Simon Legree, on the other hand, Quaker feminist abolitionist, who is a northerner and the villain.
Ultimately, was edited by Lydia Child. It out- though, the book was used by abo- spokenly condemned the sexual litionists and others as a polemic exploitation of black slave women. Harriet Jacobs was taught to read and write by her mistress. She escaped from her man and a black man, and also de- owner and started a rumor that she picts the difficult life of a black ser- had fled North. Formerly thought to be autobi- sent back to slavery and punish- ographical, it is now understood to ment, she spent almost seven be a work of fiction.
The same can be said of and used as propaganda, these slave narratives the work of most of the women writers of the era. Frederick Douglass The slave narrative was the first black literary The most famous black American anti-slavery prose genre in the United States. It helped blacks leader and orator of the era, Frederick Douglass in the difficult task of establishing an African- was born a slave on a Maryland plantation.
It was American identity in white America, and it has his good fortune to be sent to relatively liberal continued to exert an important influence on Baltimore as a young man, where he learned to black fictional techniques and themes through- read and write. Escaping to Massachusetts in out the 20th century. The search for identity, an- , at age 21, Douglass was helped by abolition- ger against discrimination, and sense of living an ist editor William Lloyd Garrison and began to invisible, hunted, underground life unacknowl- lecture for anti-slavery societies.
Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino contract laborers were imported by 5 Hawaiian plantation owners, railroad companies, and other American business interests on the West Coast. Problems of urbanization and industrialization appeared: T poor and overcrowded housing, unsanitary con- he U. Labor unions grew, and strikes brought American history. The innocent optimism of the the plight of working people to national aware- young democratic nation gave way, after the war, ness. Farmers, too, saw themselves struggling to a period of exhaustion. Before the war, so-called robber barons like J.
HOURS IN A LIBRARY
Morgan and John idealists championed human rights, especially D. Their eastern banks tightly con- the abolition of slavery; after the war, Americans trolled mortgages and credit so vital to western increasingly idealized progress and the self- development and agriculture, while railroad made man.
This was the era of the million- companies charged high prices to transport farm aire manufacturer and the speculator, when products to the cities. In , there were fewer than Business boomed after the war. War produc- millionaires; by , there were more than tion had boosted industry in the North and given 1, It also gave indus- From to , the United States was trans- trial leaders valuable experience in the manage- formed from a small, young, agricultural ex- ment of men and machines.
The enormous nat- colony to a huge, modern, industrial nation. A ural resources — iron, coal, oil, gold, and silver debtor nation in , by it had become the — of the American land benefitted business. By World War I, the which began operating in , gave industry United States had become a major world power. Peters- S amuel Clemens, better known burg. The son of an alcoholic bum, by his pen name of Mark Huck has just been adopted by a Twain, grew up in the respectable family when his father, Mississippi River frontier town of in a drunken stupor, threatens to Hannibal, Missouri.
Ernest kill him.
- LESLIE STEPHEN.
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Ear- harsher slavery of the deep South. They go through prove that they could write as ele- many comical and dangerous shore gantly as the English. In the end, it American writers a new apprecia- is discovered that Miss Watson had tion of their national voice. Twain already freed Jim, and a respec- was the first major author to come table family is taking care of the from the interior of the country, wild boy Huck.
But Huck grows and he captured its distinctive, impatient with civilized society and humorous slang and iconoclasm. The ending gives writers of the late 19th century, M ARK T WAIN the reader the counter-version of realism was not merely a literary the classic American success myth: technique: It was a way of speaking the open road leading to the pris- truth and exploding worn-out con- tine wilderness, away from the ventions. Thus it was profoundly Illustration by morally corrupting influences of liberating and potentially at odds Thaddeus A.
Miksinski, Jr. Clearly, the novel is a story of in the s — and had even earlier roots in death, rebirth, and initiation. The escaped slave, local oral traditions. In ragged frontier villages, Jim, becomes a father figure for Huck; in decid- on riverboats, in mining camps, and around cow- ing to save Jim, Huck grows morally beyond the boy campfires far from city amusements, story- bounds of his slave-owning society.
Exaggeration, tall tales, in- adventures that initiate Huck into the com- credible boasts, and comic workingmen heroes plexities of human nature and give him moral enlivened frontier literature. These humorous courage. Each region had its fied and feel right and kind toward the others. The pure, Casey Jones, the brave railroad engineer; John simple world of the raft is ultimately over- Henry, the steel-driving African-American; Paul whelmed by progress — the steamboat — but Bunyan, the giant logger whose fame was helped the mythic image of the river remains, as vast and along by advertising; westerners Kit Carson, the changing as life itself.
Indian fighter, and Davy Crockett, the scout. Sometimes, of much of his humor.
The magnificent yet as with Kit Carson and Davy Crockett, these sto- deceptive, constantly changing river is also the ries were strung together into book form. They drew strength from natural hazards serious purpose combined with a rare genius for that would terrify lesser men. What sets the colorists enced Jewett. Nineteenth-century apart is their self-conscious and women writers formed their own exclusive interest in rendering a networks of moral support and given location, and their scrupu- influence, as their letters show.
As the first enced by local color. Some of it great success in the local colorist included social protest, especially school, Harte for a brief time was toward the end of the century, perhaps the best-known writer in when social inequality and econom- America — such was the appeal of ic hardship were particularly press- his romantic version of the gun- ing issues. Racial injustice and slinging West. Outwardly realistic, inequality between the sexes ap- he was one of the first to introduce S ARAH O RNE J EWETT pear in the works of southern writ- low-life characters — cunning ers such as George Washington gamblers, gaudy prostitutes, and Cable and Kate Chopin uncouth robbers — into serious , whose powerful nov- literary works.
In Love, ambition, idealism, and The Awakening, a young married temptation motivate his characters; woman with attractive children and Howells was acutely aware of the an indulgent and successful hus- moral corruption of business ty- band gives up family, money, coons during the Gilded Age of the respectability, and eventually her s.
Lapham uses an ironic title to make Poetic evocations of ocean, birds this point.
Silas Lapham became caged and freed , and music rich by cheating an old business endow this short novel with unusu- partner; and his immoral act deeply al intensity and complexity. Both works choosing bankruptcy rather than were forgotten for a time, but unethical success. Silas Lapham is, rediscovered by feminist literary like Huckleberry Finn, an unsuc- critics late in the 20th century. The impris- ical causes, defending the rights of oned wife projects her entrapment labor union organizers and deplor- onto the wallpaper, in the design of ing American colonialism in the which she sees imprisoned women Philippines.
He was the era. With Twain, James is generally champion of realism, and his nov- ranked as the greatest American els, such as A Modern Instance novelist of the second half of the , The Rise of Silas Lapham 19th century.
For example, in The Ambassa- made millionaire industrialist, goes dors, the idealistic, aging Lambert to Europe seeking a bride. When Strether uncovers a secret love her family rejects him because he affair and, in doing so, discovers a lacks an aristocratic background, he new complexity to his inner life. He exploited new subject matters — femi- Edith Wharton nism and social reform in The Like James, Edith Wharton grew Bostonians and political up partly in Europe and eventually intrigue in The Princess Casa- made her home there.
She was massima He also attempted descended from a wealthy, estab- to write for the theater, but failed lished family in New York society embarrassingly when his play Guy and saw firsthand the decline of Domville was booed on the this cultivated group and, in her first night. This social James returned to international transformation is the background subjects, but treated them with of many of her novels. The plex and almost mythical The Wings core of her concern is the gulf sep- of the Dove , The Ambassa- arating social reality and the inner dors which James felt was self.
Often a sensitive character his best novel , and The Golden feels trapped by unfeeling char- Bowl date from this major acters or social forces. Edith period. In James, only self-aware- breakdown partly due to the con- Photogravure courtesy ness and clear perception of others National Portrait Gallery, flict in roles between writer and yields wisdom and self-sacrificing Smithsonian Institution wife.
Like the A sense of obligation. It is usu- to society. It daringly nomic and social forces beyond opened up the seamy underside of their control. Asso- Naturalism flourished as Ameri- ciated with bleak, realistic depic- cans became urbanized and aware tions of lower-class life, determin- S TEPHEN C RANE of the importance of large econom- ism denies religion as a motivating ic and social forces. By , the force in the world and instead per- frontier was declared officially ceives the universe as a machine.follow url
Janet Evans Total Swimming
Most Americans resided in Eighteenth-century Enlightenment towns, and business dominated thinkers had also imagined the even remote farmsteads. Naturalists imagined society, Jersey, had roots going back to instead, as a blind machine, godless Photo courtesy Revolutionary War soldiers, clergy- and out of control.
Primarily a jour- dream as London experienced them during his nalist who also wrote fiction, essays, poetry, and meteoric rise from obscure poverty to wealth plays, Crane saw life at its rawest, in slums and and fame. Eden, an impoverished but intelligent on battlefields. His haunting Civil War novel, The izes that the woman he loves cares only for his Red Badge of Courage, was published to great money and fame. His despair over her inability acclaim in , but he barely had time to bask in to love causes him to lose faith in human nature.
He was virtually forgotten longer belongs to the working class, while he during the first two decades of the 20th century, rejects the materialistic values of the wealthy but was resurrected through a laudatory biogra- whom he worked so hard to join. He sails for the phy by Thomas Beer in He has enjoyed con- South Pacific and commits suicide by jumping tinued success ever since — as a champion of into the sea.
stupider than jupiter Manual
Like many of the best novels of the common man, a realist, and a symbolist. It is the har- wealth. When her explores the dangers of the American dream.