Accept cookies. A typical set of setup files The Bash prompt Shell scripts The graphical environment The X Window System X server configuration Region specific settings Keyboard setup Date and time zone Country-specific Information Installing new software Package formats Automating package management and updates Upgrading your kernel Installing extra packages from the installation CDs Shell environment Graphical environment Printers and printing Printing files Command line printing The server side Graphical printer configuration Buying a printer for Linux Print problems Wrong file My print hasn't come out Fundamental Backup Techniques Preparing your data Fundamental Backup Techniques 9.
Moving your data to a backup device Making a copy on a floppy disk Making a copy with a CD-writer Backing up data using a tape device Tools from your distribution Using rsync An example: rsync to a USB storage device Generate a key About your key Encrypt data Decrypting files Networking Overview The OSI Model Some popular networking protocols Network configuration and information Configuration of network interfaces Network configuration files Network configuration commands Network interface names Checking the host configuration with netstat Other hosts Server types File Transfer Protocol Chatting and conferencing News services The Domain Name System Authentication services Remote execution of applications Rsh, rlogin and telnet The SSH suite The rdesktop protocol Networking Update regularly Firewalls and access policies Intrusion detection More tips Have I been hacked?
Recovering from intrusion General networking Remote connections Sound and Video Audio Basics Drivers and Architecture Sound and video playing CD playing and copying Playing music files Video playing, streams and television watching Internet Telephony What is it? Where to go from here? Useful Books General Linux X Window Useful sites General information Architecture Specific References DOS versus Linux commands Shell Features Common features Differing features Many people still believe that learning Linux is difficult, or that only experts can understand how a Linux system works.
Though there is a lot of free documentation available, the documentation is widely scattered on the Web, and often confusing, since it is usually oriented toward experienced UNIX or Linux users. Today, thanks to the advancements in development, Linux has grown in popularity both at home and at work. The goal of this guide is to show people of all ages that Linux can be simple and fun, and used for all kinds of purposes.
This guide was created as an overview of the Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter. For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author's experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. We hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
The second edition of this guide is available in print from Fultus. Figure 1.
Revision History Revision History Revision 1. Revision 1. Small revisions, updates for commands like aptitude, more on USB storage, Internet telephony, corrections from readers. Minor changes in chapters 4, 5, 6 and 8, added rdesktop info in chapter 10, updated glossary, replaced references to fileutils with coreutils, thankyou to Hindi translators. Contributions Many thanks to all the people who shared their experiences. And especially to the Belgian Linux users for hearing me out every day and always being generous in their comments.
Also a special thought for Tabatha Marshall for doing a really thorough revision, spell check and styling, and to Eugene Crosser for spotting the errors that we two overlooked. And thanks to all the readers who notified me about missing topics and who helped to pick out the last errors, unclear definitions and typos by going through the trouble of mailing me all their remarks.
These are also the people who help me keep this guide up to date, like Filipus Klutiero who did a complete review in and and helps me getting the guide into the Debian docs collection, and Alexey Eremenko who sent me the foundation for chapter In , Suresh Rajashekara created a Debian package of this documentation. Finally, a big thank you for the volunteers who are currently translating this document in French, Swedish, German, Farsi, Hindi and more. It is a big work that should not be underestimated; I admire your courage.
Feedback Missing information, missing links, missing characters? Mail it to the maintainer of this document: Don't forget to check with the latest version first! The logos, trademarks and symbols used in this book are the properties of their respective owners. You will require a computer and a medium containing a Linux distribution. Apart from time, there are no further specific requirements.
Hardware requirements and coexistence with other operating systems are also discussed. CD images can be downloaded from linux-iso. An interesting alternative for those who don't dare to take the step of an actual Linux installation on their machine are the Linux distributions that you can run from a CD, such as the Knoppix distribution. Conventions used in this document The following typographic and usage conventions occur in this text: Table 1. Literal computer input and output captured from the terminal, usually rendered with a light grey background.
Name of a command that can be entered on the command line. Option to a command, as in "the -a option to the ls command". Argument to a command, as in "read man ls ". Graphical button to click, like the OK button. The author Clickable link to an external web resource. The following images are used: This is a note It contains additional information or remarks.
This is a caution It means be careful. This is a warning Be very careful. This is a tip Tips and tricks. Organization of this document This guide is part of the Linux Documentation Project and aims to be the foundation for all other materials that you can get from the Project. As such, it provides you with the fundamental knowledge needed by anyone who wants to start working with a Linux system, while at the same time it tries to consciously avoid re-inventing the hot water. Thus, you can expect this book to be incomplete and full of links to sources of additional information on your system, on the Internet and in your system documentation.
The first chapter is an introduction to the subject on Linux; the next two discuss absolute basic commands. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss some more advanced but still basic topics. Chapter 6 is needed for continuing with the rest, since it discusses editing files, an ability you need to pass from Linux newbie to Linux user.
The following chapters discuss somewhat more advanced topics that you will have to deal with in everyday Linux use. All chapters come with exercises that will test your preparedness for the next chapter. Introduction 6 Chapter 1. We will start with an overview of how Linux became the operating system it is today. We will discuss past and future development and take a closer look at the advantages and disadvantages of this system.
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We will talk about distributions, about Open Source in general and try to explain a little something about GNU. History 1.
In The News
UNIX In order to understand the popularity of Linux, we need to travel back in time, about 30 years ago Imagine computers as big as houses, even stadiums. While the sizes of those computers posed substantial problems, there was one thing that made this even worse: every computer had a different operating system. Software was always customized to serve a specific purpose, and software for one given system didn't run on another system.
Being able to work with one system didn't automatically mean that you could work with another.
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It was difficult, both for the users and the system administrators. Computers were extremely expensive then, and sacrifices had to be made even after the original purchase just to get the users to understand how they worked. The total cost per unit of computing power was enormous. Technologically the world was not quite that advanced, so they had to live with the size for another decade.
In , a team of developers in the Bell Labs laboratories started working on a solution for the software problem, to address these compatibility issues. They developed a new operating system, which was 1. Simple and elegant. Written in the C programming language instead of in assembly code.
Able to recycle code. Until then, all commercially available computer systems were written in a code specifically developed for one system.
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UNIX on the other hand needed only a small piece of that special code, which is now commonly named the kernel. This kernel is the only piece of code that needs to be adapted for every specific system and forms the base of the UNIX system. The operating system and all other functions were built around this kernel and written in a higher programming language, C. Chapter 1.
Using this new technique, it was much easier to develop an operating system that could run on many different types of hardware. The software vendors were quick to adapt, since they could sell ten times more software almost effortlessly.